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Science Standards of Learning

K – 5

SOL #

SOL

Key Points

Activity

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic K.1

The student will conduct investigations in which· Basic properties of objects are identified by direct observation;

· Observations are made from multiple positions to achieve different perspectives;

· A set of objects is sequenced according to size;

· A set of objects is separated into two groups based on a single physical attribute;

· Objects are described both pictorially and verbally

The museum has a collection of rocks and minerals on display in the Geology exhibit. Observation, discussion and comparison of the rocks and minerals in the Geology exhibit.Observation, discussion and comparison of any of the exhibits.

Matter K.4

The student will investigate and understand that objects can be described in terms of their physical properties. Key concepts include· The eight basic colors

· Shapes and forms

· Textures and feel

· Relative size and weight

· Position and speed

Exhibits at the museum feature a number of objects such as rocks and minerals, indian artifacts, fossils, etc. that can be compared by size, shape, color, etc. Observation of the rocks and minerals in the Geology exhibit. Discussion and comparison of their physical properties.

Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change K.9

The student will investigate and understand that change occurs over time, and rates may be fast or slow. Key concepts include· Natural and human-made things may change over time; and

· Changes can be noted and measured

The museum has an extensive collection of photographs (The Totten Collection) spanning well over 100 years of local history. Totten Collection timeline activity.

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic 1.1

The student will plan and conduct investigations in which· Differences in physical properties are observed using the senses and simple instruments to enhance observations

· Objects or events are classified and arranged according to attributes or properties

Exhibits at the museum feature a number of objects such as rocks and minerals, indian artifacts, fossils, etc. that can be compared by size, shape, color, etc. Observation of the rocks and minerals in the Geology exhibit. Discussion of their physical properties.
Life Processes 1.5 The student will investigate and understand that animals, including people, have life needs and specific physical characteristics and can be classified according to certain characteristics. Key concepts include· Life needs (air, food, water, and a suitable place to live)

· Physical characteristics (body coverings, body shape, appendages, and methods of movement)

· Characteristics (wild/tame, water homes/land homes)

The museum has fossils and models of various ice age mammals, including mammoth, mastodon, giant beaver, and musk ox. Comparison of woolly mammoth and mastodon: differences in their teeth, tusks, size, etc.

Resources 1.8

The student will investigate and understand that natural resources are limited. Key concepts include· Identification of natural resources…minerals… Saltville has large deposits of salt, gypsum, and limestone which have been utilized for hundreds of years. Discussion of minerals in the area and how they have been used.

Living Systems 2.5

The student will investigate and understand that living things are part of a system. Key concepts include· Living organisms are interdependent with their living and nonliving surroundings; and

· Habitats change over time due to many influences

Animals were attracted to the area by the salt. Woodland Indians were attracted by the abundance of animals and other natural resources. Observation of the Ice Age Mammals and Woodland Indian exhibits. Discussion of why they were found in this region.

Matter 3.3

The student will investigate and understand that objects can be described in terms of the materials they are made of and their physical properties. Key concepts include:· Objects are made of smaller parts;

· Materials are composed of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification; and

· Physical properties remain the same as the material is reduced in size

Exhibits at the museum feature a number of objects such as rocks and minerals, indian artifacts, fossils, etc. that can be compared by size, shape, color, etc. Observation and discussion of rocks and minerals in Geology Exhibit.

Life Process 3.4

The student will investigate and understand that behavioral and physical adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs. Key concepts include:· Methods of gathering and storing food, finding shelter, defending themselves, and rearing young; and

· Hibernation, migration, camouflage, mimicry, instinct, and learned behavior

Long hair on mammoth and mastodon was an adaptation to cold weather during the Ice Age.Mammoth and mastodon teeth are each designed for the type of food they ate. Observation and discussion of the ice Age fossils.

Living Systems 3.5

The student will investigate and understand relationships among organisms in aquatic and terrestrial food chains. Key concepts include:· Producer, consumer, decomposer;

· Herbivore, carnivore, omnivore; and

· Predator – prey

Mammoths and mastodons were herbivores. The museum has fossils of the teeth of several of the Ice Age mammals. These demonstrate how the teeth were adapted to the type of food eaten by each particular animal. Observation and discussion of Ice Age mammal fossils. 

Living Systems 3.6

The student will investigate and understand that environments support a diversity of plants and animals that share limited resources. Key concepts include· Water-related environments (pond, marshland, swamp, stream, river, and ocean environments);

· Dry-land environments (desert, grassland, rainforest, and forest environments)

Due to the prevalence of salt in the soil and water, Saltville is the site of a salt-marsh environment. There are plants there that are normally found only in coastal areas. Observation and discussion of wellfields area using the interactive valley model.Visit to the wellfields to observe the environment there directly.

Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems 3.7

The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include:· Soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;

· Topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;

· Rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils;

· Soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.

The wellfields area, less than one half mile from the museum, has a variety of plants growing there in different types of soil. In places where the soil is too salty, plants do not grow at all or they are plants which are normally found in coastal regions.Elsewhere in the wellfields are areas of blue-gray clay. This was excellent for preservation of fossils. Visit to the wellfields to observe the environment there directly.

Resources 3.10

The student will investigate and understand that natural events and human influences can affect the survival of species. Key concepts include· The interdependency of plants and animals;

· Human effects on the quality of air, water, and habitat

The chemical plant located in Saltville had a major impact on the area.Humans apparently hunted and used the Ice Age mammals for food, etc.

Animals were attracted here by the salt they needed in their diets.

Observation and discussion of the Company Town exhibit.Observation and discussion of the Ice Age mammal fossils.

Resources 3.11

The student will investigate and understand different sources of energy. Key concepts include:· Fossil fuels

· Renewable and nonrenewable resources

The Geology exhibit contains samples of coal and related sources of fuel. Observation and discussion of the Geology exhibit.

Living Systems 4.5

The student will investigate and understand how plants and animals in an ecosystem interact with one another and the nonliving environment. Key concepts include· Habitats and niches;

· Life cycles; and

· Influence of human activity on ecosystems

Due to the prevalence of salt in the soil and water there, the wellfields area (one half mile from the museum) provides a special habitat for some coastal plants and birds.The extensive drilling of salt wells has affected the wellfields area for hundreds of years.

The museum has fossil evidence of Ice Age mammals.

Observation of Ice Age fossils and discussion of why they were found in the Saltville valley.Visti to wellfields to observe the unique environment there.

Resources 4.8

The student will investigate and understand important Virginia natural resources.· Minerals, rocks, ores, and energy sources Saltville’s abundant natural resources (salt, gypsum, limestone, etc.) have been important to both animals and humans for thousands of years. Observation of the minerals in the Geology exhibit. Discussion of how they have been used and why they are important.

Scientific investigation, Reasoning, and Logic 5.1

The student will plan and conduct investigations in which· Rocks, minerals, and organisms are identified using a classification key The Geology exhibit contains rocks and minerals that can be used to practice identification using a classification key. Observation and discussion of classifications of rocks and minerals in the Geology exhibit.

Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change 5.7

The student will investigate and understand how the Earth’s surface is constantly changing.Key concepts include

· The rock cycle including the identification of rock types;

· Earth history and fossil evidence

· Plate tectonics

· Weathering and erosion

Saltville sits on top of a 450-mile long fault line called the Saltville Fault.During the spring of 2002, the Saltville Exhibit Hall features a fossil exhibit entitled “Fossils: Traces of the Ages.” For more information click here. Observation and discussion of the Saltville Fault on the interactive valley model.Tour of fossil exhibit in Saltville Exhibit Hall. Worksheet and study guide are available.

Programs can be tailored to meet the specific needs of your students. Contact the museum at (276)-496-3633 or by email at MOMA@NETVA.COM to discuss the programs available or to schedule a field trip.